Our online Winter Steelhead course with Mia and Marty Sheppard is in full swing (pardon the pun), and we’ve been seeing a lot of questions lately about what exactly a “winter” steelhead is. We thought we’d quickly explain the basics.
Winter steelhead are distinguished from summer steelhead by their sexual maturity upon entering freshwater rivers and streams. Unlike summer steelhead, which enter rivers sexually immature, winter steelhead are sexually mature and are able to spawn right away if they choose to. Winter steelhead are found along the Pacific coast from Baja California all the way up to Alaska, while summer steelhead are found more commonly east of the Cascades. Winter fish typically enter rivers from November through April, while summer steelhead may enter rivers throughout the year, with the majority entering between June and March.
One of the things that makes these fish so special is their resilience and power. Winter steelhead are able to migrate thousands of miles, reproduce in fresh water, and then mature in the ocean before returning to their home waters. Steelhead typically spend around a year as juveniles in fresh water before migrating to the ocean, although this can vary. Some steelhead may even spend two or three years in fresh water before heading out to sea! The life cycle of steelhead can be complex and varied, with different combinations of time spent in fresh water and saltwater. This diversity is a key factor in the survival of the species, despite the many challenges they face.
It’s important to note that winter steelhead are listed as threatened in many watersheds due to a variety of factors known as the “four H’s”: harvest, hatcheries, hydro, and habitat. Habitat loss, over-harvest, and competition with hatchery-raised fish can all have an impact on the population of winter steelhead. Hydroelectric dams and other forms of habitat alteration can also have negative effects on these fish. Despite these challenges, winter steelhead remain an incredible species that is worth protecting for future generations.